The recognition of native title provides Indigenous peoples with more than merely a land asset. As land based cultures and societies, Indigenous groups in Australia seek land justice as a means of sustaining social, cultural and political systems that are intimately connected with land and waters. When native title is impaired or extinguished, the social and cultural impacts are not well understood. As we move toward a greater focus on compensation claims in coming years, it is essential to understand the social, cultural and economic impacts of impairment and how these systems can be restored through compensatory and other transitional justice measures. Alternative settlements and ILUAs provide some indication as to how Indigenous peoples seek to structure compensatory packages. This panel will examine alternative settlements and other compensation packages, with a particular emphasis on seemingly ‘irreparable’ damage to land access (for example, cities and towns). Compensatory and transitional justice measures adopted in comparative jurisdictions including Canada and New Zealand will also be considered.