Indigenous peoples have inherent rights, including the right to self-determination. The principles in these Guidelines for Ethical Research in Australian Indigenous Studies (GERAIS) are founded on respect for their rights. These include rights to full and fair participation in any processes, projects and activities that impact on them, and the right to control and maintain their culture and heritage. AIATSIS considers that these principles are not only a matter of ethical research practice but of human rights. It is essential that Indigenous people are full participants in research projects that concern them, share an understanding of the aims and methods of the research, and share the results of this work.