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Acknowledgements

AIATSIS acknowledges the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (FRDC) and their Indigenous Reference Group (IRG) for their support of the Livelihood values of Indigenous customary fishing project. Interviews with over 170 people were conducted with the support of our key project partners, the NSW Aboriginal Fishing Rights Group, the Far West Coast Aboriginal Corporation (FWCAC), and the Crocodile Islands Rangers (CIR).

The project would not have been possible without the hard work and dedication of Yvonne Stewart, Wayne Haseldine, Kelly Miller, Solodi Buthungguliwuy, Gerard Morgan, Doreen Collins and Simone McMonigal in planning fieldwork and conducting and analysing interviews. Hayley Egan of Barefeet Consultants was instrumental to the project: co-leading fieldwork and conducting and analysing interviews in South Coast NSW and Far West Coast SA, providing invaluable methodological advice, and conducting the literature review for the project.

The following people generously provided additional time, support and materials for the project: Tran Tran, Tim Heffernan, Dylan Daniel-Marsh, Amity Raymont, Stacey Little, Cedric Hassing, Bradley Moggridge, Matthew Osborne, Robert Carne, John Brierley, Robert Chewying, Wally Stewart, Allan Carriage, Ron Nye, Keith Nye, Andrew Nye, Maryanne Nye, Kerrie Harrison, Oscar Richards, Sue Haseldine, Tanyta Haseldine, Simone McMonigal, Warrick Angus, Jason Mewala, Michael Mungula, George Milaypuma and John Skuja.

Support for the project was also provided by the project advisory committee, which included members from the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Australian Fisheries Management Authority, Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Parks Australia, North Australia Indigenous Land and Sea Management Alliance, Northern Land Council, Torres Strait Regional Authority, Australian National University, Charles Darwin University, NSW Department of Primary Industries, SA Department of Primary Industries and Regions, and Ridge Partners.

We wish to acknowledge our colleagues in the AIATSIS Public Engagement team for designing and publishing this exhibition, particularly Bryce Gray, Dan Norton and Stephen Gill. Collections staff provided us with invaluable assistance in navigating their enormous collection, notably Nilanthi Abeysekara who sifted through over 2,600 fishing-related photos from the AIATSIS pictorial archive. Steph Lum spent many hours helping to secure community permissions for the use of photos from the AIATSIS Collection.

We also wish to acknowledge the work of contributing authors Chris Calogeras (‘Project sponsor’) and Dr Bentley James (‘The Crocodile Islands Northern Territory’), as well as all the individuals, community organisations and cultural institutions who have allowed us to reproduce their photographs within this exhibition. The sources of all images are provided in the exhibition slides.

Authors

All material was written by Luke Smyth, Liz Koschel and Rod Kennett in 2017, with contributions by Chris Calogeras and Dr Bentley James.

References and further reading

A brief history of Indigenous fishing

Indigenous Australian Fishing Past & Present, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation
http://frdc.com.au/research/final-reports/Documents/Indigenous%20Australian%20Fishing%20Past%20and%20Present.pdf 

Jackson, S 2006, ‘Compartmentalising Culture: the articulation and consideration of Indigenous values in water resource management’, Australian Geographer, 37(1): 19-31.

Richards, MC and Haseldine, SC 2012, Nguly gu yadoo mai (our good food): A bush foods book from far west South Australia, Sue Coleman Haseldine, Ceduna, SA.

Smyth, D and Monaghan, J 2004, Living on Saltwater Country: Review of literature about Aboriginal rights, use, management and interests in northern Australian marine environments, National Oceans Office, Hobart.

Toussaint, S 2014, ‘Fishing for Fish and for Jaminyjarti in Northern Aboriginal Australia’, Oceania, 84(1): 38-51.

Tran, T, Smyth, L, Kennett, R, Egan, H, Stewart, Y, Stewart, W, Brierley, J, Nye, A & Butler, T 2016, ‘What’s the catch? Aboriginal cultural fishing on the NSW South Coast’, Australian Environment Review, 31(5): 182-185.

The right to fish

Akiba on behalf of the Torres Strait Regional Seas Claim Group v Commonwealth of Australia [2013] HCA 33
http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/cth/HCA/2013/33.html

Altman, J 2008, ‘Understanding the Blue Mud Bay decision’, Crikey, 1 August 2008.
http://www.crikey.com.au/2008/08/01/understanding-the-blue-mud-bay-decision/

Brennan, S 2008, ‘Wet or dry, it’s Aboriginal land: The Blue Mud Bay decision on the intertidal zone’, Indigenous Law Bulletin, 7(7): 6-9.

Butterly, L 2013, ‘“For the reasons given in Akiba...”: Karpany v Dietman [2013] HCA 47’, Indigenous Law Bulletin, 8(10): 23-26.

Butterly, L 2013, ‘Native title rights, regulations and licences: the Torres Strait Sea Claim’, The Conversation, 8 August 2013.
http://theconversation.com/native-title-rights-regulations-and-licences-the-torres-strait-sea-claim-16808

Grey, A 2007, ‘Offshore native title: Currents in sea claims jurisprudence’, Australian Indigenous Law Review, 11(2): 55-71.

Kailis, G 2013, ‘Unintended consequences: Rights to fish and the ownership of wild fish’, Macquarie Law Journal, 11: 99-124.
http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/MqLawJl/2013/7.html 

Karpany v Dietman [2013] HCA 47
http://www.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/sinodisp/au/cases/cth/HCA/2013/47.html

Levy, R 2000, ‘High Court upholds hunting rights in Yanner appeal: Yanner v Eaton’, Indigenous Law Bulletin, 4(26): 17.

Mabo case, AIATSIS,
http://aiatsis.gov.au/explore/articles/mabo-case

Mabo v Queensland (No 2) [1992] HCA 23
http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/cth/HCA/1992/23.html

Mary Yarmirr & Ors v Northern Territory of Australia & Ors [1998] FCA 1185
http://www.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/sinodisp/au/cases/cth/FCA/1998/1185.html

Native Title Act 1993 (Cth) s 211 http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/nta1993147/s211.html

Northern Territory of Australia v Arnhem Land Aboriginal Trust [2008] HCA 29 http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/cth/HCA/2008/29.html

Peterson, N & Rigsby, B 2014, Customary marine tenure in Australia, Sydney University Press. http://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/bitstream/2123/10786/1/Chap1-Peterson&Rigsby-Customary-Marine-Tenure.pdf

Sea Country Rights in the Northern Territory, Northern Land Council, 2017
http://www.nlc.org.au/articles/info/sea-rights-in-the-northern-territory/

Yanner v Eaton [1999] HCA 69
http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/cth/high_ct/1999/69.html

Researching Indigenous fishing values

Indigenous Reference Group, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, http://www.frdc.com.au/environment/indigenous_fishing/Pages/Indigenous-Reference-Group.aspx  

Schnierer, S & Egan, H 2012, Impact of management changes on the viability of Indigenous commercial fishers and the flow on effects to their communities: Case study in New South Wales. Report to the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra.
http://frdc.com.au/research/Documents/Final_reports/2010-304-DLD.pdf 

Far West Coast South Australia

Far West Coast Aboriginal Corporation,
http://www.fwcac.org.au/

Far West Coast Aboriginal Corporation, Far West Coast Healthy Country Plan, 2016
http://www.fwcac.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/DRAFT-Far-West-Coast-Healthy-Country-Plan-full-v4.pdf

Clarke, PA 2001, ‘The significance of whales to Aboriginal people of southern South Australia: Records of the South Australian Museum’, Records of the South Australian Museum, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 19–35.

Eckermann, CV 2010, Koonibba: The mission and the Nunga people, Elizabeth Buck, Clarence Gardens, SA.

Martin, S 1988, Eyre Peninsula and West Coast Aboriginal Fish Trap Survey, Prepared for the South Australian Department of the Environment and Planning.

Monaghan, P 2008, ‘Authenticity, Ideology and Early Ethnography - Untangling Far West Coast Gugada’, in Warra wiltaniappendi: Strengthening languages - Proceedings of the inaugural Indigenous Languages Conference (ILC) 2007, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, pp. 113–118. http://www.atsida.edu.au/sites/www.atsida.edu.au/files/Monaghan%202007.pdf

Nicholson, AF 1994, ‘Archaeology on an Arid Coast: Environmental and cultural influences on subsistence economies on the West Coast of South Australia’, Master of Arts, Australian National University, Canberra.

Nicholson, A & Cane, S 1991, ‘Archaeology on the anxious coast’, Australian Archaeology, no. 33, pp. 3–13.

Richards, MC and Haseldine, SC 2012, Nguly gu yadoo mai (our good food): A bush foods book from far west South Australia, Sue Coleman Haseldine, Ceduna, SA.

Smith, M 2013, The Archaeology of Australia’s Deserts, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

South Coast New South Wales

Adcock, B 2015, ‘Indigenous fishing rights caught in the net’, The Saturday Paper, 79, 26 September 2015.

Attenbrow, V 2010, ‘Aboriginal fishing in Port Jackson, and the introduction of shell fish-hooks to coastal New South Wales, Australia’, in D Lunney, P Hutchings & D Hochuli (eds), The Natural History of Sydney, Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.

Cameron, SB 1987, ‘An investigation of the history of the Aborigines of the far south coast of New South Wales in the nineteenth century’, B Litt (Honours), Australian National University, Canberra.

Cane, S 2014, ‘Aboriginal fishing rights on the New South Wales South Coast: A court case’, in N Peterson & B Rigsby (eds), Customary marine tenure in Australia, Sydney University Press, Sydney. http://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/handle/2123/11406

Colley, SM 1997, ‘A pre- and post-contact Aboriginal shell midden at Disaster Bay, New South Wales South Coast’, Australian Archaeology, vol. 45, Dec. 1997, pp. 1–20.

Cruse, B, Stewart, L & Norman, S 2005, Muttonfish: The surviving culture of Aboriginal people and abalone on the south coast of New South Wales, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra.

Elgoff, B 2000, ‘“Sea Long Stretched Between”: Perspectives of Aboriginal fishing on the South Coast of New South Wales in the light of Mason v Tritton’, Aboriginal History, 24(2000): 200-211.

Kennett, R, Tran, T, Heffernan, T & Strelnikow, L 2016, Livelihood values in Indigenous customary fishing: report of a meeting with

Indigenous cultural fishers on the south coast of NSW, AIATSIS, Canberra.
http://aiatsis.gov.au/sites/default/files/docs/research-and-guides/Land-and-water/frdc_nsw_september_report_final.pdf 

Lambeck, K & Nakada, M 1990, ‘Late Pleistocene and Holocene sea-level change along the Australian coast’, Palaeogeography, Paleoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 89(1-2): 143-176.

Lampert, RJ 1971,‘Burrill Lake and the Currarong’, vol. 1, Terra Australis, Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, Canberra.

Lampert, RJ and Hughes, PJ 1974, ‘Sea level change and Aboriginal adaptations in southern New South Wales’, Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania, 9(3): 226-235.

Schnierer, S & Egan, H 2012, Impact of management changes on the viability of Indigenous commercial fishers and the flow on effects to their communities: Case study in New South Wales. Report to the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra.
http://frdc.com.au/research/Documents/Final_reports/2010-304-DLD.pdf

Tran, T, Smyth, L, Kennett, R, Egan, H, Stewart, Y, Stewart, W, Brierley, J, Nye, A & Butler, T 2016, ‘What’s the catch? Aboriginal cultural fishing on the NSW South Coast’, Australian Environment Review, 31(5): 182-185.

The Crocodile Islands Northern Territory

Crocodile Islands Rangers: Protecting country and culture, http://crocodileislandsrangers.org/

Aboriginal coastal fishing licences, Northern Territory Government, 2016 http://nt.gov.au/marine/commercial-fishing/aboriginal-coastal-fishing-licences

Bagshaw, G 2014, ‘Gapu Dhulway, Gapu Maramba: conceptualisation and ownership of saltwater among the Burarra and Yannhangu peoples of northeast Arnhem Land’, in N Peterson & B Rigsby (eds), Customary marine tenure in Australia, Sydney University Press, Sydney. http://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/handle/2123/11412

Baymarrwangga, L, James, B, Lydon, J 2014, ‘“The Myalls’ ultimatum”: Photography and Yolŋu in Eastern Arnhem Land, 1917’, in J Lydon (ed.), Calling the shots: Aboriginal photographies, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra. http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=401103155909878;res=IELIND

Baymarrwangga, L & James, B 2014, Yan-nhaŋu Atlas and Illustrated Dictionary of the Crocodile Islands, Tien Wah Press, Singapore.

Berndt, RM & Berndt, CH 1954, Arnhem Land: its history and its people, Cheshire, Melbourne.

James, B 2009, ‘Time & Tide in the Crocodile Islands: Change and Continuity in Yan-nhangu Marine Identity’, PhD, Australian National University. http://digitalcollections.anu.edu.au/bitstream/1885/10927/1/James_B_2009.pdf

Sea Country Rights in the Northern Territory, Northern Land Council, 2017 http://www.nlc.org.au/articles/info/sea-rights-in-the-northern-territory/

Riseman, NJ 2007, ‘Defending Whose Country? Yolngu and the Northern Territory Special Reconnaissance Unit in the Second World War’, Limina, vol. 13, pp. 80–91.

Russell, D 2004, ‘Aboriginal-Makassan interactions in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in northern Australia and contemporary sea rights claims’, Australian Aboriginal Studies, no. 1, 2004, pp. 3-17.
http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=447693807633937;res=IELAPA

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AIATSIS acknowledges the traditional owners of country throughout Australia and their continuing connection to land, culture and community.

We pay our respects to elders past and present.